## Montgomery Curves in Projective Coordinates

Written by Dominik Joe Pantůček on 6 února, 2020.

If you ever wondered, how does the cryptography Cryptoucan™ actually employ look like and how do the elliptic curves used actually look, now it is time you wonder no more. Read on to see what does the curve used for encryption look like!

## Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm

Written by Dominik Joe Pantůček on 7 června, 2018.

After slightly going astray from the elliptically curved path on our favorite doughnuts, we return from the realm of electronic mail to much more interesting world of mathematics. Today, our effort to explain elliptic curves in simple Weierstrass form and their usage should reach its second culmination. With Diffie-Hellman key exchange explained, the only part that is missing is some digital signature scheme. So please read on to find the beauty of the Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm beast.

## Elliptic curve Diffie-Hellman key exchange

Written by Dominik Joe Pantůček on 17 května, 2018.

We have already learned about elliptic curves in simple Weierstrass form over a finite field and the group structure the points of such curve form that we can use all this information to look at some cryptography built on top of this. Going from the point negation, doubling and addition over scalar multiplication and prime order curves with no problematic points to the discrete logarithm problem and back, we show how to perform a secure key exchange using our favourite doughnuts.

## Elliptic curves: discrete logarithm problem

Written by Dominik Joe Pantůček on 10 května, 2018.

Algebraic groups built on top of points of elliptic curves together with the scalar multiplication specified as repeated addition can be used as basic building blocks for asymmetric cryptography systems. The strength of these systems if derived from the toughness of the reversing the scalar multiplication operation. It is very expensive to reverse this operation and to answer a question like „how many times we have to multiply point G to get given point P“. This problem is called Elliptic Curve Discrete Logarithm Problem – or ECDLP for short. In this article we show the toughness of this problem.

## Elliptic curves: double and add

Written by Dominik Joe Pantůček on 3 května, 2018.

Last time we have shown how to perform scalar multiplication of point on elliptic curve in simple Weierstrass form over a finite field. We have also shown that all the required properties hold for all rational points of the curve – which is a good thing. The problem we have not tackled yet is the complexity of the scalar multiplication operation. Today we are about to present a method of performing fast scalar multiplication in which the complexity of the operation grows much slower than the size of the scalar.